As a physician-scientist, Dr. Carmel is committed to doing experiments that ultimately improve function for people living with paralysis. We perform two kinds of experiments towards that goal. First, we model human injury and therapy in rodents. We have developed models that mimic human disease in terms of the mechanism of injury and the neural circuits that are injured and spared. In addition, we apply therapies that can be performed in people. Second, we design human experiments using approaches that we developed in the laboratory. One such approach, paired brain and spinal cord stimulation, is now being trialed in people undergoing clinically indicated spinal surgery. Thus, our approach can be described as “bench to bedside and back”.